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  1. Factors Influencing the Realization of Quality Improvement in Healthcare.

Historical, social, political, and economic trends and issues that have influenced health care today.

The rapidly changing health care provision system has many forces driving it. Historical, social, political, and economic trends and issues in the last century have influenced today’s healthcare system (“Chapter 10, issues of quality and safety”, n.d). Need to reduce the cost and increase quality health care influences the movement toward improved quality and safety. Economics, societal demographics, legislation, regulation, and technology are some of the influencers.

Economic trends are a significant influencer of the process of moving towards improved quality. For instance, in the USA, the business community, medical supply chain stakeholders alongside the media are constant critiques of that country’s health care system (“Chapter 10, issues of quality and safety”, n.d). The demographic situation of society is another trend that influences quality improvement in healthcare. The increased racial, age and ethnic diversity in the Us, for instance, has influenced healthcare delivery in a significant way (“Chapter 10, issues of quality and safety”, n.d). 

Many stakeholders are interested in a revolution of the health care system, and hence they always push for legislations that will translate to a change. To avert some of the challenges affecting the health care system, legislation, and regulations by the prevailing regime are imminent.

Technological advancement is another factor influencing quality improvement in health care. Technology implementation in health care helps to reduced costs and, at the same time, improve the quality of services. Medical practitioners, such as nurses, are compelled continuously to adjust to the new technologies by seeking additional knowledge and skills necessary to handle these technologies.

Historical occasions in government and bodies managing health care have taken a significant role in enhancing quality in health care provision (“Chapter 10, issues of quality and safety”, n.d). The systematic revolution of the health care system and even the government have seen the utilization of measures unique to the prevailing situation and scenarios that have been witnessed in the past.

2.Purpose and process of evaluating the three aspects of health care

Evaluation in health care is divided into three main categories; structural, process, and outcome (Wensing, Grol, & Grimshaw, 2020). Structural evaluation involves the assessment of structures and methods used in the provision of healthcare. According to Wensing, Grol, & Grimshaw (2020), structural assessment’s primary purpose is to demystify the consumers of health acre the capacity, effectiveness, and nature of the health care system. The process involves identifying what is to be evaluated and identifying relevant stakeholders. Assessing the required resources and determining the methods of measurement follow suit. Development of an action plan, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, and evaluation of finding follow in their respective order.

On the other hand, process evaluation is assessing the effectiveness of the actions taken by health care providers to ensure quality services. The evaluation’s primary purpose is to inform consumers on medical care they should expect to receive when faced with particular health issues (Wensing, Grol, & Grimshaw, 2020). The assessment follows a similar process as used in the structural evaluation. 

Outcome evaluation is the assessment of the implications of services offered to patients. The assessment seeks to identify issues that may call for drastic changes in a bid to improve health care services. The process is also crucial in the identification of the level of quality of health care. The steps followed in structural evaluation also apply in this case.

3.How technology have improved patient outcomes and the healthcare system

Intensive application of technology has infested literary all the sector today, including the health care sector. Technology is being used in facilitating communication among health care practitioners alongside the management of medical data. Often a single patient is handled by more than one health care practitioner hence an increased risk of miscommunication (Chi et al., 2019). However, technology plays a massive role in preventing such occurrences through the use of the Electronic Health Records system, thus improving patient outcomes.

The occurrence of prescription error is a serious threat to quality health care provision. Technology is appliable to avert possible instances of erroneous prescription whereby prescriptions can be sent directly to pharmacies electronically (Siebert et al., 2019). Reminders and medical alerts are other ways technology can be applied to prevent the potential error in prescription. Thanks to technology, the null or minimum occurrence of error will play a significant role in ensuring improvement in patient outcomes.

Patient-centred care is essential in ensuring positive patient outcomes. Technology is vital in achieving patient-centred care through the implementation of online portals, messaging, and other forms of modern communication. Medical practitioners can keep in touch with their patients through such platforms.

Nurses’ alertness at the bedside is crucial in ensuring their ability to ensure the safety of patients and improved patient outcomes. Considering attention being a primary factor influencing patient safety and patient outcomes, assigning nurses, many patients will impede patients’ safety and outcomes (Spazzapan, Vijayakumar & Stewart, 2019). Therefore, health care administrators must ensure adequate staffing in the nursing fraternity to ensure that the nurses are not overstretched.  

The nature of nursing partition increases the likely hood of mistakes. Such mistakes are more likely to occur when the working conditions for the nurse are unfavorable (Spazzapan, Vijayakumar & Stewart, 2019. The easiness of errors occurring puts the patient improvement and safety of patients. Therefore, the nurses’ working conditions should be as conducive as possible. Authorities in health care should take measures to improve the nurses’ working conditions to ensure an improvement in patients’ outcomes. 

4.WHO’s influence on quality improvement in Health Care.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations (UN) body involved in health matters. Apart from providing monetary aid in a bid to improve health care, the WHO also makes policies and recommendations aimed at ensuring the improvement of health care (Subramaniyaswamy et al., 2019). For instance, the body requires nations to have national health care standards policies and strategies, establish and maintain an adequate medical workforce and ensure that the health care sector is endowed adequately with relevant infrastructure.  The UN body also recommends that all citizens be informed about their right to access quality health care services alongside them playing a role in designing health care systems. 

2) Select one nonprofit organization or one government agencies that influences and advocates for quality improvement in the health-care system. Explore the Web site for your selected organization/agency and answer the following questions:

WHO began when our Constitution came into force on 7 April 1948 – a date we now celebrate every year as World Health Day.

The World Health Assembly is attended by delegations from all Member States, and determines the policies of the Organization.

The Executive Board is composed of members technically qualified in health, and gives effect to the decisions and policies of the Health Assembly.

The primary role is to direct and coordinate international health within the United Nations system.

The main areas of work are health systems; health through the life-course; noncommunicable and communicable diseases; preparedness, surveillance and response; and corporate services.

The recommendations, funding, and policies made by WHO have seen radical changes in the system. For instance, the UN body’s recommendation on increasing the workforce has seen an increase in efforts by the government to recruit more practitioners. WHO also recommends governments to ensure the health care system is adequately equipped with physical infrastructure. 

In the health facility, I work in understaffing had been prevalent in the past few years. However, additional nurses have recently joined us. This is an implication of the WHO policies that require adequate staffing in health care facilities.

References 

References 

Chapter 10, issues of quality and safety (n.d).

Chi, J., Bentley, J., Kugler, J., & Chen, J. H. (2019). How are medical students using the Electronic Health Record (EHR): An analysis of EHR use on an inpatient medicine rotation. PLoS One14(8), e0221300

Spazzapan, M., Vijayakumar, B., & Stewart, C. E. (2020). A bit about me: Bedside boards to create a culture of patient‐centered care in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Journal of Healthcare Risk Management39(3), 11-19.

Siebert, J. N., Ehrler, F., Combescure, C., Lovis, C., Haddad, K., Hugon, F., … & Gehri, M. (2019). A mobile device application to reduce medication errors and time to drug delivery during simulated paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a multicentre, randomized, controlled, crossover trial. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health3(5), 303-311.

Subramaniyaswamy, V., Manogaran, G., Logesh, R., Vijayakumar, V., Chilamkurti, N., Malathi, D., & Senthilselvan, N. (2019). An ontology-driven personalized food recommendation in IoT-based healthcare system. The Journal of Supercomputing75(6), 3184-3216.

Wensing, M., Grol, R., & Grimshaw, J. (Eds.). (2020). Improving patient care: the implementation of change in health care. Wiley-Blackwell.

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