· Collect Five Articles/References
For the milestone research paper due for this module, you will need a minimum of five (5) references (articles, books, government documents, etc.) from five different sources (journals, organizations, anthologies etc). As you collect the articles and other references you plan to use, remember to keep the information you will need necessary to prepare a correct References page. View the YouTube video on APA References page below so that you can start collecting your sources in the right format from the beginning. Also, refer to the pages in your handbook, A Writer’s Reference.
· Write an Abstract
What is an abstract?
Your initial abstract will a brief, single-paragraph summary of what your Persuasive Argument research paper will be about, including the position you are taking on your topic. The thesis statement will be included in your abstract.
As much as possible at this point in your writing, include your paper’s purpose, main points, method, findings, and conclusions. If you have not yet reached a conclusion, nor researched thoroughly, include what you expect will be your conclusion. After your paper is completed, you can always go back and change it or add to it as long as it stays within the word limit.
How long should it be?
The abstract’s length should be a minimum of 150 words and a maximum of 250 words; it should be confined within a single paragraph. Unlike in other paragraphs in the paper, the first line of the abstract should not be indented.
What are Keywords? At the end of the abstract, a list of the important words related to the paper are listed. Leave one line of space after the abstract and begin the next line with the word “Keywords” in italics, followed by a colon, and indented a half inch. See page 527 in A Writer’s Reference for a sample of an abstract.
The following are acceptable sources (including Internet versions):
· Reputable News Media (Time, Newsweek, New York Times)
· Serious Popular Magazines(New Yorker, National Geographic)
· Government Publications
· Scholarly periodicals
· Scholarly books
· Reputable translations of foreign works
· Student dissertations or theses
· Research forums on the Internet
· Internet periodicals by reputable organizations
News mediaare acceptable only if the story is so recent that there are no scholarly publications on the subject. In other words: Use the media only if there is no other source.
Serious popular magazinesoccasionally have articles by authorities, interviews, or summaries of current topics of interest. Acceptability depends on how reputable the authors are and how thoroughly the publication checks its facts.
Government publicationsare acceptable if they are research or technical publications, but generally not if they are popular brochures or pamphlets. Note the.govending for online work.
What is a DOI?
A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is an identifying number now being used in APA style in addition to and sometimes instead of the URL address. It is a set of numbers and letters, used in the most recently published journal articles. The DOI will soon become the most important part of the reference for several good reasons.
The DOI is like a digital fingerprint of a Social Security number. There is only one number assigned for each article upon publication, and it will be used to identify the article from then on. No matter where the article gets published or republished, the DOI will stay the same, guaranteeing that the article can remain accessible, no matter what happens to the original web site that published it. In most cases where there is a DOI, it can replace the URL address in APA style.
In the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, DOIs can look somewhat like an URL address Example:
Herbst, D. M., Griffith, N. R. & Slama K. M. (2014). Rodeo cowboys: Conforming to masculine norms and
help-seeking behaviors for depression. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 38, 20-35.
However, it can also be added as: doi: 10.1037/rmh0000008. Either way, notice that both identifiers are the same and will always lead back to that article.
Research: Writing Like a Scholar
You will now write a complete research paper. A research paper is an expanded essay that presents your own interpretation, evaluation, or argument, using what knowledge is already available on the subject. A research paper involves studying a topic in order to find the best possible information in that field. Your paper must present your own opinions and ideas supported by your research, correctly credited to the original authors and organizations.
· Length: 900-1,500 words. A minimum of 900 words is required in order for your essay to be substantial. What is important is that you get your point across.
· Organization: Introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion.
· Language: Use formal language and avoid the use of first and second person — avoid references to yourself (NO “I believe, in my opinion” etc.), no personal anecdotes, and do not address the reader (avoid “you” altogether.
· Documentation: five correctly documented quotes or paraphrases from five adequate sources.
· Style: APA style is usually used for the type of research you will be doing. Continue in that style unless otherwise stated by your professor.
· Cross-referncing: You must use in-text citations (also known as in-text references) or signal phrases each time you use the words or ideas of your sources in the essay. Cross-reference your work as explained in your handbook. The handbook is especially necessary for this essay.
· Support: You’ll need a minimum of five sources. Support your ideas with expert opinion, facts, statistics, and other information you find in your research. It is a mistake to create a Frankenstein research paper by copying and pasting.
Rubric and Research Paper Procedures: Persuasive Argument Research Paper
Rubric (a more detailed rubric will be used explaining how the points will be assigned):
Language and Content:
References or Works Cited:
· Use the topic you chose in Discussion D2.2 Choose a Topic/Thesis Statement If you are not comfortable with the topic you chose, see “If you wish to change topics” below.
· Take a position: This is not merely a pro/con paper where you list both sides of an argument. In this paper, you will take a side. Know your position.
· State the opposition’s viewpoint: Because this is an argument, you must bring up the opposition’s position and do your best to establish counter arguments to refute it.
· Do more research: A minimum of five references is required for this paper. They must all be from different sources.
· Write in formal English: This is a research paper, so keep to the formal third person (avoid “I” and “You”) and avoid personal anecdotes.
· Proofread carefully! If you are not sure of your writing skills, you may go to one of the MDC campuses to the Writing Lab where tutors are available. You may also use free online tutoring through Smartthinking.com. Go to the link under Tools and Resources (side menu) to find out about this resource.
· Revise, edit, and proofread. I can’t stress this enough.
· Format correctly according the the documentation style your professor assigns. To assure that your Microsoft Word program does not force those extra spaces on you, remember to go to Paragraph > and click on the bos on the left-had corner that reads “do not add extra spaces between like paragraphs.”
IF you wish to change topics:
Your new topic (different from the one that was accepted in Discussion D2.2), you must submit:
1. your alternate topic and a statement of purpose
2. a preliminary thesis statement for your research paper. The thesis statement should be a complete sentence in which your purpose and position is clear.
Submitting this assignment: Send me a message through the Course Messages in Blackboard with your thesis and statement of purpose. I must approve your proposal before you continue.
Your topic must be debatable for an argument paper. Please check the other debatable topic options available in D2.2 or suggest your own. Avoid the overdone topics such as capital punishment and abortion (I will not approve them).
Some possible debatable topics are:
1. Romantic love is a poor basis for marriage.
2. Juvenile murderers should/ should not be tried as adults.
3. Foster parenting isn’t working and should be banned.
4. Most forms of government welfare should/should not be abolished.
5. Censorship is sometimes/never justified.
6. All citizens under the age of 21 should be required to pass a driving education course before receiving a license to drive.
7. Trans fat and high fructose corn syrup are the cause of the obesity epidemic in America.
8. Gasoline taxes should be raised in order to encourage less driving.
9. Troops should/should not be immediately pulled out of foreign bases (or choose one particular base).
10. Tax breaks to large corporations should/should not be eliminated
Formatting/ Typing Guidelines for Research Paper
· Convert your papers to Microsoft Word before submitting.
· In Microsoft Word, make sure you look under the Paragraph section. On the bottom of the left hand side there is a box which reads “Do not add extra spaces to like paragraphs.” Check that box! In academic papers, there are no extra spaces between the paragraphs. Instead, you must indent each new paragraph. I recommend tapping the tab key to indent.
· The research paper must be typed, double-spaced.
· Pages must be numbered. Use the correct pagination format for the documentation style your instructor has chosen.
· The title of your paper is centered, using the same font and font size as the rest of the paper. Your title must not be bold, underlined, or italicized.
· Use Times New Roman 12 pt. font.
· Use one-inch margins at the top, bottom and sides of each page.
· Long quotes: Quotations of forty or more words in the typescript (APA) or four lines (MLA) should be set apart followed by the page number. Shorter passages are integrated into the text of the paper.
ENC 1102 Persuasive Argument Essay Checklist
In addition to proofreading for spelling, grammar, and usage and making sure you use clear and simple language, ask yourself the following:
1. Did you use formal language (avoiding contractions, the use of first or second person and personal anecdotes)?
2. Is your thesis statement clearly stated, preferably at the end of the introduction, and did it reflect a clear position on your topic?
3. Are generalizations and opinions supported by specific details?
4. Did you bring up the opposition’s viewpoints and refuted them with counter arguments of your own?
5. When you used source material, did you introduce the quotations you used in a signal phrase?
6. Did you add an in-text citation each time you used a source?
7. Did you cross-reference your sources correctly? All citations should have an entry in the References page.
8. Did you include excessive quotations; is too much of your paper quoted material, or are you including irrelevant information? (Don’t do this! The amount of quotations should not exceed 25% or so of your total essay).
9. Have you looked at the sample paper in your handbook? Are all the details, including dating in your bibliographic entries, spacing, indentation etc. correct?
10. Did you assemble your References page correctly? Remember that organizations, such as World Health Organization and Pew Research Center are listed as authors. Did you alphabetize the entries?
11. Is your paper formatted correctly based on the Formatting and Typing Guidelines provided?
This list provides topics which are focused (not too broad), challenging (not just factual), and grounded (not too speculative). All the topics are debatable, establishing a basis for a good persuasive argument paper.
Choose one of these topics:
1. Water/Environment: Last year, Americans bought more than 4 billion gallons of water in individual-portion bottles. The environmental impact to all those plastic bottles, made from non-renewable resources like natural gas and petroleum is a concern.eAlthough bottled water is 10,000 times the cost of tap water, consumers are reluctant to give up their bottled water. They feel bottled water is safer and convenient to carry around. In your thesis take a position for or against buying bottled water.
2. Human trafficking: The exploitation of human beings is a world problem, yet this form of slavery is not something that only occurs outside our borders. The United States Department of State estimates that between 14,000 and 18,000 individuals are trafficked into the country each year. The laws in place have not been helpful in controlling this kind of trafficking. Choose a position: More border regulation should/should not be in place to reduce human trafficking into the United States.
3. Fat Tax: More and more countries are adopting fat taxes (adding more tax to junk food and soft drinks) in an effort to curb rising obesity rates and also to offset the economic costs of obesity. Numerous studies suggest that as the price of a food decreases, individuals get fatter. Yet, since the poor spend a greater portion of their income on food, such a tax has been said to be regressive. In your thesis, take a position for or against the fat tax.
4. Terrorism: Determine what your position is with dealing with terrorists. Consider whether the United States should negotiate with groups that are religious or apocalyptic in their objectives, such as “Islamic State,” as opposed to groups that are political. Take a position: Negotiating with terrorists is appropriate in all cases, is never appropriate, or appropriate in some cases.
5. Drunk Driving: Taking away the licenses of drunk driving offenders has not proven successful (they drive anyway), so consider an argument for or against more stringent law enforcement, such as requiring ignition interlocks for all drunk driving offenders, sobriety checkpoints and whatever new technology or regulation could prevent drunks from continuing on the road while inebriated.
6. Teen Drivers: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death to 15 to 20-year olds. Teen drivers are three times more likely than drivers aged 21 and older to be in a fatal crash. Because of this, many states have adopted driver training courses required of teen drivers. Should we in Florida? Choose a position: All Florida citizens under the age of 21 should/ should not be required to pass a complete driving education course before receiving a license to drive.
7. Senior Drivers: Because of high accident rates and the increasing risk elderly drivers impose on roadway safety, advocates want drivers’ licensing requirements across the nation to become more stringent as drivers age. Choose a position: All citizens over the age of 75 should/should not be given yearly driving and vision exams in order to renew licenses.
8. Bike Paths: Decide on your position for or against using transportation taxes to build bike paths parallel to major roads. There are cyclists and drivers against bike paths, but the number of accidents happening in Florida have many citizens, drivers and cyclists among them, calling for paths to be built. Bike paths in the Miami community is a more focused topic, but you can use national arguments and examples from outside Miami.
9. School Shootings/ Gun Control: Choose a topic in which you you approve or disapprove of some kind of gun control policy specifically targeted to help eliminate school shootings (gun control, along with metal detectors, gun control targeted to mentally unstable families, etc.). Your topic and approach, whichever position you take, should offer solutions on what can be done about keeping students safe from school shootings.
10. Profiling: Balancing security concerns with demonstrating respect and dignity for travelers has been an issue since 9/11. Profiling should/should not be an accepted form of fighting terrorism in airports.
11. Daylight Savings Time: Many citizens have called for an end to Daylight Savings Time, which began in the United States during World War I, primarily to save fuel by reducing the need to use artificial lighting. Consider a persuasive argument topic for or against Daylight Savings Time.
12. Texting: The dangers of texting and talking on the phone while driving are well documented. How do we as a society address the use of electronic devices while driving in order to put the brakes on the fatalities that these distractions are causing on the roads? Will regulations interfere with citizens’ individual freedom? Choose a position.
13. Sexual Predators: In what ways and how should violators be caught and punished if preying on children on the Internet? Do you oppose or support certain forms of censorship to catch or prevent predators preying on children? If you are against regulating the Internet, then in what ways can parents protect their children? (Do not make this an advice article for parents. Write it in the third person, avoiding references to “I” and “You” altogether). Also consider: Should TV shows such as NBC’s “Dateline” series, “To Catch a Predator,” continue bringing attention to the problem of adults sexually preying on youngsters over the Internet?
14. Foreign Adoption: Over the past decade, the USA has adopted at least 15,000 children internationally each year. Due to less regulation, corruption and human trafficking, there have been considerable problems, and some countries have banned foreign adoption altogether. In addition, many children within the USA are in foster care, so some people want the USA to also ban foreign adoptions. Consider an argument for or against adopting children from foreign countries.
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