Here is a model outline for a research paper on Latinos and low graduation rates put together by a student named Susana. While Susana was required to submit an essay outline before submitting her essay, I decided not to require an essay outline from you for your research assignment
As you review Susana, keep in mind that no matter your controversial topic, your line of reasoning as you begin to write your essay should be as clear as the one evident in the model outline she has created. When Susana writes her research essay, she will follow her outline to make sure her line of reasoning is clear and adheres to the required pattern of argumentation we appropriated from Aristotle and which was used by Cicero–this outline was given earlier in the semester.
10 November 2016
Research Paper Outline
In this essay I will argue that charter schools can solve the problem of the low high school graduation rates of Latino males.
II. Historical or Intellectual Background
III. Support for Main Claim
IV. Counterargument and Refutation
II. Have you offered a general introduction and a clear claim?
xxxxxAt one point in American history, single mothers were an aberration and held in low regard because society placed a great value on two parent families. Also, two parent households were the norm in American society because most people valued the central role the man played as the head of the household. Today, however, single mothers seem accepted as inevitable given the high divorce rate in America. Despite the divorce rate, some families do manage to re-create two parent families. Some children are fortunate to have a stepfather who helps the mother nurture and provide for them but not every child of divorce is so fortunate. Today either through divorce or by a refusal to marry, a large percentage of single mothers are the sole caregivers and providers. I will argue that for several compelling reasons single mothers are a danger to society.
III. Have you offered clear supporting reasons?
First of all,
In the first place,
First of all, the children of single mothers have the highest rate of psychological problems.
Next, single mothers pose a financial burden to federal, state and local governments in terms of social services.
IV. Whenever possible, have you used transitions to signal your evidence?
Example of a Reason backed by Evidence
xxxxxFirst of all, I believe single mothers are a menace to society because their children have the highest rate of psychological problems. Generally, single mothers cannot supervise their children all the time and they usually do not have the adequate social support that they can rely on; consequently, these children are usually vulnerable to negative social peer pressure. Data confirms the negative psychological and sociological consequences for children raised in single homes. For example, “approximately 30% of U.S. families are now being headed by a single parent, and in 80% of those families, the mother is the sole parent. Seventy-five of adolescents in chemical dependency hospitals are from single parent families. One out of five children have a learning, emotional, or behavioral problem due to the family system changing” (Rainbow International Headquarters).
For amplification on the importance of transitions, review A Pocket Style Manual.
Sample Signal phrases
According to Gregory Mantsios, “
Jean Anyon points out, “
Aaron H. Devor explains, “
Rick Santorum points out, “Crime relates to family structure…broken homes can increase delinquency in a community by ten to fifteen percent, and the proportion of single parent households in a community predicts the rate of violent crime and burglary much better than a community’s level of poverty” (88).
When Do I Use the Source’s Last Name in Parentheses ( ) ?
VI. Did You Make Sure to Cite a Source from Rereading America?
VII. Have you offered a counterargument and refutation?
Counterargument Signal Phrases
Critics of my position would argue that
Critics of this point of view would point out
Some would disagree and claim that
There are those that would challenge this essay’s conclusion
Critics of this point of view argue that the children of single mothers have gone on to become celebrated leaders and scientists. For example, Barack Obama, the 45th President of the United States, was raised for a while by a single mother in Hawaii. His Kenyan father left for Harvard when he was only two years old…
Refutation Signal Phrases
However, the opposition’s point is not convincing nor does it diminish this essay’s central claim because the success stories are exceptions rather than the rule….
VIII. Have you followed the guidelines for the works cited page? Are the entries done correctly?
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