The four key functions of human resource management consist of planning, acquisition, development, and sanction (PADS). Every function plays a crucial role in recruitment, retention, and separation. Planning involves “budget preparation” and “workforce planning” such as “performance management, job analysis, and pay and benefits” (Klinger, Nalbandian, and Llorens 2018, 3). Planning function is “necessary to timely and properly manage the human resource to achieve the organizational needs” (Maharjan 2018). Acquisition denotes recruitment and selection of employees. This function “makes availability of right person in right number at right time at right job” (Maharjan 2018). Development deals with training, performance evaluation, and motivating employees. Development function enables “individuals in organizations to perform current and future jobs through planned learning activities” (HR Software Solutions 2017). Sanction maintains expectations and obligations of employer and employees through rules, regulations, rights, and laws. Sanction function regards “discipline, grievances, health and safety, and employee rights” (Klingner and Sabet n.d., 4). In addition to its roles in recruitment, retention, and separation, all four functions are necessary in pursuit of human capital management, which is the key to maximize productivity in the contemporary human resource management. Another important element which human resource managers must consider is traditional values: political responsiveness and representation, efficiency, employee rights, and social equity. Human resource managers need to ensure that PADS would meet these values. Human resource management “in the United States may be described as a dynamic equilibrium among these competing values, each championed by a particular personnel system, for allocating scarce public jobs in a complex and changing environment” (Klingner and Sabet n.d., 3). The more category of employment diversifies, the more complex human resources management’s consideration of values becomes. Nonetheless, “’public administration’ requires balancing the values in legislative work, implementation, and even in the judicial arena” (Klinger, Nalbandian, and Llorens 2018, 348). PADS are “the core of administrative processes and values” (Klinger, Nalbandian, and Llorens 2018, 350). Further, PADS are imperative in order to create, maintain, and improve a reliable and effective workforce and to achieve human capital management. Therefore, all four functions are equally important.
Human Resources Software Solutions. 2017. What is Human Resources Development (HRD)? http://hrssolutions.com/human-resources-development-hrd/
Klinger, Donald E., John Nalbandian, and Jared Llirens. 2018. Public Personnel Management 7th Edition. New York: Longman.
Klingner, Donald E., and Mohamed Gamal Sabet. n.d. Contemporary Public Human Resource Management System: Patronage, Civil Service, Privatization, and Service Contract. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. https://www.eolss.net/Sample-Chapters/C14/E1-34-05-01.pdf
Maharjan, Palistha. 2018. “Functions of Human Resource Management.” Businesstopia. https://www.businesstopia.net/human-resource/functions-human-resource-management
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